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Glossary of Terms

.AVI file:
Microsoft ã Audio Video file format for Personal Computers.
Aliasing:
An undesirable distortion component that can arise in any digitally encoded information (sound or picture). Sometimes called Artifacting in video.
Amplitude:
The strength of an electronic signal as measure by its waveform height. (Sound)
Amplitude Distortion:
The nonlinear relation of input and output induced harmonics which is a function of voltage fluctuations or power consumption. (Acoustics)
Analog:
An electrical signal that continuously varies in strength as related to some form of input.
Analog Recording:
A means of recording audio or video whereby the recorded signal is a physical representation of the waveform of the original signal.
Anamorphic:
An optical system having different magnifications in the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the image.
Anti-Aliasing:
Filtering of erroneous frequencies that are created during the analog to digital conversion process. (Sound/Picture)
Aspect Ratio:
The proportion of picture width to height (1.33:1, 1.66:1, 1.85:1 or 2.35:1).
Artifact:
A product of artificial character (as in a scientific test).
Asynchronous Sound:
Sound which is indigenous to the action but not precisely synchronized with the action.
Balanced:
An audio circuit with 3 wires, two that carry signal, and a third which is connected to a ground (grounded). (Sound)
Bed:
Background music used underneath a narrator or foreground dialog. Primarily applied to commercial radio or television spots.
Bin:
A reference to a storage container lined with a cloth bag, into which cut film or sound stock may be arranged and hung. In digital audio and video terms, this can be related to a film and/or directory from which stored shots or sound segments are selected for use.
Burn-in Time Code:
A videotape in which a "window" displaying the time code count on the tape is superimposed over part of the picture.
Butt Splice:
A film splice in which the film ends come together without overlapping. (Film Editing)
Clipping:
The phenomenon where an input signal exceeds the capability of electronic or digital equipment to reproduce the signal. This results in an audible distortion (analog) or an incomprehensible noise (digital). (Sound)
CD (Compact Disc):
A digitally encoded disc capable of containing more than one hour of music at a sampling frequency of 44.1 khz. A laser beam reads the data. (Sound)
Click Track:
A prerecorded track of electronic metronomic clicks used to ensure proper timing of music to be recorded. Essential in music scoring sessions. (Music)
Control Track:
A recorded track used to adjust or manipulate a recording or playback device. Generally, these are used to maintain consistent playback speed of video and/or sound recorders consistent with the recorded speed. (Post Production)
Crossfade:
The gradual mix of sound sources accomplished by the simultaneous manipulation of two or more mix console faders. (Post Production)
Cutaway:
A single shot inserted into a sequence of shots that momentarily interrupts the flow of action, usually introducing a pertinent detail. (Production/Editing)
DAT (Digital Audio Tape):
Two-channel digital audio has become increasingly common as a professional master reference and for use in field recording. (Sound)
DAW (Digital Audio Workstation):
A computer-based recording and editing machine used for manipulating sounds. (Sound)
Decoder:
The device which reads the enclosed signal or pulse and turns it into some form of usable information.
Dead Sync:
An editorial term meaning that sound and picture elements are perfectly aligned. (Film Editing)
Dialogue track:
A sound track which carries lip sync speech. (Sound)
Digital:
A reference to a system whereby a continuously variable analog signal is reduced and encoded into discrete binary bits that establish a mathematical model of an original signal or other information.
Digital Recording:
A method of recording in which samples of the original analog signal are encoded on tape or disk as binary information for storage or processing. The signal can then be copied repeatedly with no degradation. (Sound)
Distortion:
A modification of the original signal appearing in the output of audio equipment which had not been present in the input. (Audio)
Drop Out:
Loss of a portion of a signal, usually due to a loss of a tape's oxide coating or due to dirt or grease covering a portion of a tape.
Dub:
To make a taped copy of any program source record, CD, tape. Also, the copy itself. Sometimes used to refer to the ADR process. (Audio/Video)
Dutch Angle:
This is the process where a camera is angled so that the horizontal frame line is not parallel to the horizon. (Production)
Dynamic Range:
The difference in decibels between the loudest and quietest portions of audio. (Sound)
EBU:
European Broadcast Union. This generally identifies a 25 FPS time code standard.
Edit Decision List (EDL):
The list of SMPTE codes, in footage and frames, and including instructions for fades, dissolves and other special effects which corresponds to all the segments that the editor of a film or videotape production has decided to use in the final cut.
Edit Master:
Video industry term for the tape containing the finished (edited) program.
Edit Points:
Also known as "edit in" and "edit out." The beginning and end points of an edit when a video program or soundtrack is being assembled.
EIDE:
Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics is a standard electronic interface between your computer and its mass storage drives able to address a hard disk larger than 528 Mbytes. EIDE also provides faster access to the hard drive, support for Direct Memory Access (DMA), and support for additional drives, including CD-ROM and tape devices through the AT Attachment Packet Interface (ATAPI).

Environmental Sound:
General low level sound coming from the action of a film, which can either synchronous or non-synchronous.
Equalization:
The alteration of sound frequencies for a specific purpose, such as to remove 'noise' frequencies or to improve speech clarity.
Establishing Shot:
Usually a long shot at the beginning of a scene which is intended to inform the audience about a changed locale or time for the scene which follows. (Production)
5.1 Channel Digital Sound:
The film digital sound exhibition standard which utilizes five output speaker channels (left, center, right, right surround, left surround, and subwoofer). (Sound)
Fade:
An optical effect in which the image of a scene is gradually replaced by a uniform dark area or vice versa.
Foley:
Creating sound effects by watching picture and mimicking the action, often with props that do not exactly match the action.
FAT:
A file allocation table (FAT) is a table that an operating system maintains on a hard disk that provides a map of the clusters (the basic unit of logical storage on a hard disk) that a file has been stored in.
Format:
The size or aspect ratio of a motion picture frame.
Frame:
The individual picture image on a strip of motion picture film. Also, one complete screen on videotape.
Frame Rate:
The frequency at which film or video frames run (i.e. 24 fps; 29.97 Hz in NTSC; 25 Hz in PAL European format).
Freeze Frame:
An optical printing effect in which a single frame image is repeated so as to appear stationary when it is projected.
Frequency:
The number of times a signal vibrates each second as expressed in cycles per second (cps) or Hertz (Hz). (Sound)
Frequency Response:
This represents the sensitivity of a given sound, video, or other recording/playback system.
Gamma:
The degree of contrast and detail in video.
Gigabyte (GB):
A unit for measuring computer memory capacity, equivalent to 1,000 megabytes (MB) "roughly" a billion bytes.
Handle:
An extra number of frames attached to the head and tail of an optical print as a safety precaution. (Laboratory)
Hard Disk:
A data storage and retrieval device consisting of a disk drive and one or more permanently installed disks. Increasingly common for storing sound effects and archiving for future use. Applications are stored here.
High-Pass Filter:
An electronic filter used in various audio circuits to attenuate all frequencies below a chosen frequency.
Hiss:
Asperity Noise. Noise caused by minute imperfections in the recording medium (tape). (Sound)
Incoming Scene:
The second scene to appear in a dissolve or wipe effect.
Insert Editing:
Used in videotape or digital audio editing to describe the process of replacing a segment located between two specific and previously dubbed segments.
Intercutting:
An editing method whereby related shots are inserted into a series of other shots for the purpose of contrast or for some other effect. (Film Editing)
Invisible Cut:
A cut made during the movement of a performer which is achieved by overlapping the action or by using two cameras, then matching the action during editing. (Film Editing)
Jam Sync:
A process of locking a time code generator to an existing coded tape in order to extend or replace the code, used when code is of poor quality.
Jump-Cut:
An editorial device where the action is noticeably advanced in time, either accidentally or for the purpose of creating an effect on the viewer. (Film Editing)
Layback:
Transfer of the finished audio mix back onto the video edit master.
Layoff:
Transfer of audio and time code from the video edit master to an audiotape.
Layover:
Transfer of audio onto multitrack tape or hard disk. Also referred to as "lay-up."
Lip-Sync:
The relationship of sound ad picture that exists when the movements of speech are perceived to coincide with the sounds of speech.
Looping:
A continuous sound track that runs repeatedly in playback as a guide for re recording. (Post Production)
Lossy Compression:
A compression scheme that tries to remove picture information that viewers are not likely to notice. Lossy compressors do not preserve original data; image information is lost and cannot be recovered..
Lowpass Filter:
A filter that attenuates frequencies above a specified frequency and allows those below that point to pass.
Match-Image Cut:
A cut from one shot to another shot having an image of the same general shape as the one in the prior shot. (Film Editing)
MB:
The acronym for megabytes, a unit of computer information storage capacity equal to 1,048,576 .

MIDI:
Musical Instrument Digital Interface. A machine protocol that allows synthesizers, computers, drum machines and other processors to communicate with and/or control one another. (Sound)
Mix:
Electrically combining the signals from microphones, tape, and/or reproducers and other sources.

Motion JPEG:
Joint Photographic Experts Group format, a third-party hardware compression scheme that allows display of full-frame images at 30 frames per second, 60 fields per second.
MMX:
MMX is a Pentium microprocessor from Intel that is designed to run faster when running multimedia applications.
Montage:
The assembly of shots and the portrayal of action or ideas through the use of many short shots. (Film Editing)
Nonlinear Editing:
The ability to insert, copy, replace, transform, and delete clips at any time. Nonlinear editing allows experimenting with various sequences and effects, previewing the changes before compiling your final movie, or outputting to videotape.
NTSC:
National Television Standards Committee. The organization that sets the American broadcast and videotape format standards for the FCC. Color television is currently set at 525 lines per frame, 29.97 frames per second.
Offline:
The videotape editing process whereby the final edit list is compiled, usually in a more inexpensive edit room, in preparation for the on-line edit. (Video)
Online:
The videotape editing process that creates the final video edit master, including effects, from the offline edit list. (Video)
Outgoing Scene:
The first scene of a dissolve or wipe effect which changes into the second, or incoming scene.
Overlapping and Matching Action:
Repeating part of the action in one shot at the beginning of the next shot, or covering the action with two or more cameras, then matching the overlaps on the editing table for the purpose of making a smooth cut on action. (Film Editing)
PAL (Phase Alternating Line):
The European color television standard that specifies a 25Hz frame rate and 625 lines per frame.
Pick-up Shot:
Reshooting a portion of a scene, the rest of which was acceptably filmed in a previous take.

Plug Ins:
Auxiliary programs accessible from within a parent program.

RAM:
Random Access Memory. Computer memory within which the applications are executed and run.
Relational Editing:
Editing of shots for the purposes of comparison or for the contrast of content. (Film Editing)
Reverberation:
The presence or persistence of sound due to repeated reflections.
Ripple Edit:
The ripple edit tool adjusts the duration of one clip on a track while retaining the duration of all other clips on the track. The effect of the duration change in one clip adjusts (ripples) the positions of other clips and may change the total duration of the movie. Ripple editing is sometimes called film-style editing.
Rough-cut:
A preliminary trial stage in the process of editing a film. Shots are laid out in approximate relationship to an end product without detailed attention to the individual cutting points. (Film Editing)
Rolling edit:
The rolling edit tool adjusts the duration of one clip, but increases or decreases the duration of the adjacent clip to maintain the original duration of the two-clip sequence and the duration of the entire track. Rolling editing is sometimes called video-style editing.
Score:
The original-music composition for a motion picture or television production which is generally recorded after the picture has been edited.
Scrub:
Moving a piece of tape or magnetic film back and forth over a sound head to locate a specific cue or word.
SCSI:
Small Computer Systems Interface. Data transfer format for Computers. Hard Drives, Scanners, CD-ROM's etc.
Sequencer:
The hardware or software based brain of a MIDI studio. It receives stores and plays back MIDI information in a desired sequence.
Sibilance:
An exaggerated hissing in voice patterns. (Post Production)
Signal:
The form of variation with time of a wave whereby information is conveyed in some form whether it is acoustic or electronic.
Signal to Noise Ratio:
This is the ratio of the desired signal to the unwanted noise in an audio or video record/playback system.
Slate:
The identifier placed in front of the camera at beginning of a take.
Sound Effect:
A recorded or electronically produced sound that matches the visual action taking place onscreen.
Sound-on-Sound:
A method in which previously recorded sound on one track is re-recorded onto another track while new material is added.
Soundtrack:
Generically refers to the music contained in a film, though it literally means the entire audio portion of a film, video or television production, including effects and dialog.
Splice:
The act of joining two pieces of film by any of several methods. (Film Editing)

Split Screen:
An optical or special effects shot in which two separate images are combined on each frame.
Stop Frame:
An optical printing effect in which a single frame image is repeated in order to appear stationary when it is projected. This may also refer to a camera technique in which only one frame at a time is exposed.
Sweeten/Sweetening:
Enhancing the sound of a recording or a particular sound effect with equalization or some other signal processing device.
Time Code:
There are several SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) timecode standards targeted for the different frame rates used in the film, video, and television industries. For technical reasons involved with broadcasting, the NTSC adopted a standard of 29.97 fps rather than the 30 fps originally used in early black-and-white television programming. The SMPTE timecode for NTSC video assumes a frame rate of 30 fps, which results in a 0.1 percent discrepancy between real playing time and the timecode's duration measurement.
To address the discrepancy between the playing time measured by SMPTE timecode and real playing time, the drop-frame format was developed. With drop-frame timecode, two frame counts are dropped (actual frames are not dropped) from the count every minute, for 9 out of every 10 minutes. The nondrop-frame timecode ignores this discrepancy and thus is not duration accurate.
Traveling Matte:
A process shot in which foreground action is superimposed on a separately photographed background by an optical printer. (Laboratory)
TV Safe:
The area of a filmed image which will normally appear on a home television set after a film has been transferred in a telecine and then transmitted.
Underscore:
Music that provides emotional or atmospheric background to the primary dialog or narration onscreen.
VITC:
Vertical Interval Time Code. A time code signal that is written in the vertical interval by the rotating video heads, allowing it to be read when the tape is not moving. Requires special equipment to read and write.
Voice-over:
Narration or non-synchronous dialog taking place over the action onscreen.
Wild Track:
Audio elements that are not recorded synchronously with the picture.
Workstation:

This term generally refers to a disk-based audio or video recording and editing system.